Saturday, March 14, 2020
8 errores que como turista debes evitar en USA Millones de extranjeros viajan a Estados Unidos cada aÃ ±o como turistas. Para evitar problemas migratorios muy serios estos son 8 errores que se deben evitar. 8 errores migratorios que no debes hacer como turista Primero Ã Mentir en un formulario de inmigraciÃ ³n o a un oficial consular (cÃ ³nsules). Se puede viajar a Estados Unidos como turista con una visa B2 (tambiÃ ©n conocida como de placer o paseo).Ã TambiÃ ©n se puede ingresar con la lser o tarjeta de cruce si se vive a lo largo de la frontera mexicano-estadounidense e, incluso, sin visado si se tiene pasaporte de uno de los paÃ ses incluidos en el Programa de ExenciÃ ³n de Visas. En este Ã ºltimo caso, si se llega a Estados Unidos por aviÃ ³n, se necesita llenar un formulario por internet que se conoce como ESTA. Sea cual fuera la forma de ingreso como turista es muy importante no mentir en ningÃ ºn formulario ni en la entrevista consular ya que las consecuencias, si lo agarran a uno, son muy graves.Ã Segundo Creer que tener visa vigente o ESTA garantiza el ingreso a Estados Unidos. El oficial migratorio en puertos, aeropuertos y puestos fronterizos terrestres tiene la Ã ºltima palabra y puede decidir que un extranjero no entra. La informaciÃ ³n que tienen las computadoras de aduanas es muy completa y por eso son ellos los que deciden. Si se produce una expulsiÃ ³n inmediata, hay que conocer las consecuencias. Tercero Tratar de ingresar artÃ culos prohibidos. Especial menciÃ ³n merecen los alimentos y las medicinas. No traer remedios que no existen en Estados Unidos ni tampoco cantidades grandes de los que existen o medicaciÃ ³n sin receta mÃ ©dica. Por ejemplo, no se puede traer antibiÃ ³ticos ms all que la cantidad necesaria para la enfermedad que se tiene en ese momento. Estas conductas pueden traer consecuencias muy graves, desde que en el aduana quiten el producto a multa, expulsiÃ ³n inmediata y cancelaciÃ ³n de la visa.Ã Cuarto Ã Viajar sin seguro mÃ ©dico. La medicina en Estados Unidos es, posiblemente, la mejor del mundo. Y tambiÃ ©n la ms cara. Para evitar sustos comprar seguro mÃ ©dico antes de viajar. Si se necesita ir a un mÃ ©dico y no se tiene seguro o no lo cubre todo, intentar una clÃ nica comunitaria, por cuestiÃ ³n de precio, o consultar costos para el mismo procedimiento en diversos hospitales. Puede haber una diferencia de miles de dÃ ³lares en operaciones sencillas. Conservar siempre la factura y si se tiene un bebÃ © con visa de turista, tener muy presentes las posibles consecuencias negativas. Quinto Ã No pagar las multas de trfico (trnsito). Esta es una manera tonta de buscarse problemas ya que la informaciÃ ³n en las computadoras de los oficiales migratorios es cada vez ms completa. Sexto Quedarse ms tiempo del permitido. Jams es una buena idea ya que puede dar lugar a la cancelaciÃ ³n automtica de la visa (y si se ingresÃ ³ sin visa, a perder ese derecho para el futuro). Adems, si la estancia se alarga ms de seis meses despuÃ ©s del plazo autorizado entra en aplicaciÃ ³n el castigo de los tres y de los diez aÃ ±os una vez que se sale de Estados Unidos. Es cierto que en muchos casos se puede solicitarÃ un perdÃ ³n migratorio cuando no se puede ingresarÃ a Estados Unidos. Pero es difÃ cil obtenerlo. SÃ ©ptimo Utilizar la visa de turista con otro fin, como por ejemplo estudiar a tiempo completo o trabajar. Incluso acciones como casarse deben realizarse con cuidado, ya que pueden tener consecuencias negativas. Octavo Ingresar con demasiada frecuencia. Se puede viajar a Estados Unidos como turista tantas veces como se quiera. Pero las entradas y salidas continuadas pueden resultar sospechosas y, en ese caso, el oficial de inmigraciÃ ³n puede impedir el ingreso. A tener en cuenta Para obtener una visa de turista, renovarla y asegurarse el ingreso a Estados Unidos en el control de paso migratorio es necesario ser, en todo momento, elegible para la visa y admisible al paÃ s. Si no es asÃ , la visa puede negarse, cancelarse o no renovarse. TambiÃ ©n es posible que el oficial de inmigraciÃ ³n en la aduana impida el paso y ordene el regreso inmediato al paÃ s de origen. Estas son causas que convierten a una persona en inelegible para la visa y estas lo convierten en inadmisible para ingresar a USA. Aprende jugando Se recomienda tomar este quiz o test de respuestas mÃ ºltiples sobre viajar como turista a Estados Unidos ya que puede servir para evitar errores tontos en el futuro y que pueden costar muy caro. Este es un artÃ culo informativo. No es asesorÃ a legal.
Wednesday, February 26, 2020
A problem solving model for Wal-Mart - Essay Example The largest retailing company of the world, Walmart has been facing a decline in sales in the US, continuously for Ã¢â¬Å"nine straight quartersÃ¢â¬ , according to The Wall Street Journal. This has been partially due to the economic recession and partially owing to the negative image that has been there for this company. In order to suggest a package of solutions to get over with this Ã¢â¬Å"sales slumpÃ¢â¬ , this paper invisages synthesizing different organizational theories, with a focus on three- the neoclassical theory put forth by Roethlisberger and Dickson (1943), the socio-technical theory proposed by Pasmore and the contingency theory evolved by Hellriegel and Slocum (1973). This project will put forth innovative and creative solutions to rectify the sales slouch in Wal-mart, using the problem-solving tools provided by these three theories. Access has been gained into the facts about the organizational design of Wal-Mart by conducting interviews with three senior level managers in charge of organizational structure. Basically, the design of Wal-Mart, as an organization, is that of a divisional structure. It has different divisions like, Wal-Mart Realty, Wal-Mart International, Wal-Mart Specialty Stores, Sam's Clubs, and Supercenters which are separate and partially autonomous units. Each division has its own specific set of goals. Step-2 The three theoretical frame works selected for this paper are chosen based on the advantages they have in addressing the specific issue in focus. For example, most of the complaints against Wal-Mart that have led to legal litigations and negative publicity has been regarding labor issues and hence a worker-centered approach put forward by Roethlisberger and Dickson (1943) can help re-model the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s functioning in such a way as to avert this criticism. Similarly, the socio-technical theory of Pasmore ((1988, p.87-109) and the contingency theory by Hellriegel and Slocum (1973) have their focus on the environmental aspects of an organization, which can be applied in the case of Wal-Mart which is haunted by many a social conflicts. Neoclassical theory of Roethlisberger and Dickson (1943) has as its core focus, the relationship between Ã¢â¬Å"working conditionsÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"employee efficiencyÃ¢â¬ (p.1). Through an experiment, Roethlisberger and Dickson (1943) had proven that there was a connection between better working conditions and better performance. In this way, this theory had changed the essence of organizational theories evolved thus far by replacing the mechanistic views by a more humanistic worker-oriented view. This theory had asserted that: An individual is not a mechanical tool but a distinct social being, with aspirations beyond mere fulfilment of a few economic and security works. Individuals differ from each other in pursuing these desires. Thus, an individual should be recognized as interacting with social and economic factors (NRMED-FAO, n.d.). Participative management has been another aspect of this theory, whereby employees are given an appropriate role in the decision making process (NRMED-FAO, n.d.). Any application of the neoclassical theory has to be by keeping in mind, the existence of an informal organization within any formal organization, the socio-psychological factors that influence workers, the inherent illogi cality of human mind, the two-way flow of communication within the hierarchy, and the need of teamwork (Pradeep, p.295). Socio-technical theory of Pasmore (1988) has based all its assumptions on the fact that Ã¢â¬Å"every organization consists of the people, the technical system and the environmentÃ¢â¬ (NRMED-FAO, n.d.). In this theory also, the importance of considering workers a human beings and all the more, social beings, is stressed (Pasmore, p.5). It has been observed that what is meant by an organization is actually an agreement, a contract between and among people and Ã¢â¬Å"changes in the organization will affect this agreement and vice versaÃ¢â¬
Monday, February 10, 2020
Discussion prompt - Essay Example In effect, Henry is saying that going to college is a mere excuse to party where students do not learn anything except to have fun. College is reduce to a mere rite of passage and not a way where can be enlightened or educated. When Henry mentioned that college is a mere rite of passage, it was in fact a statement of condescension if not derision because college is no longer a source of education where one can learn and get better but something that a person has to go through just like a ritual. And one does not necessarily learn anything when he passed through a ritual. When it is reduced to a mere rite of passage, it is like comparing college to male circumcision which is a rite of passage among males in certain societies to become Ã¢â¬Å"certified adultÃ¢â¬ . I do not necessarily agree with Henry that college is a mere rite of passage because people who go there have actual cognitive intelligence to overcome the academic rigors of college. There mere act of going there and going through the entrance tests are already enough justification that people who go to college are educated and has the right attitude to succeed in life because of their effort to be better through academic institution. Even assuming for the sake of argument, people who go to college are generally educated even without the formal credentialing compared to those who did not go to college. This attests that college is not a mere rite of passage but rather an actual learning process where students study to be
Thursday, January 30, 2020
The Role of Non-State Actors Essay 5.1 Introduction It is generally recognized that the process of building a capable state requires the participation of all the vital forces of a nation. A capable state is one that has all the attributes of a modern, strong, responsible and responsive state, a state capable of effectively discharging its duties of delivering security, peace, prosperity and other pubic goods to its people. Although the state has traditionally been considered as the focal point of this process, other sectors, including non-state ones, have an important role to play, and the importance of this role has grown significantly over the past couple of decades as the limitations of the post-colonial state in providing for the needs of its people have been made all too clear. 1 It is thus important to identify these other actors and recognise those areas wherein they can contribute, and have indeed contributed, to the process, as well as to appreciate better their nature, their mode of intervention, the constraints hampering their action as well as to explore ways in which their participation can be rendered more fruitful and less problematic. But before we delve into the subject of non-state actors and their role in the creation of the capable state in Africa, it would be useful to look into just what the capable state is and means, and what it has meant for the African continent since the advent of independence half a century ago. 5.2 Definitional Issues 5.2.1 Overview The capable state may be defined as one that effectively fulfils its obligations to its constituents by providing and safeguarding a range of goods, both tangible and intangible,2 that assure its people of a secure public space wherein they can live and love, produce and reproduce, and pursue the enjoyment of the fruits of their labour and love. Such a state will have attributes such as territorial integrity, public order and safety under the rule of law; ample political space for individual and group self-realisation; and socio-economic justice and equity that minimise conflict and foster intra-national peace and harmony. It is the absence of these attributes within states that creates what have come to be known as Ã¢â¬Å"failedÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"failingÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"dysfunctionalÃ¢â¬ states, whose common denominator are varying degrees of precariousness. In these terms, the African state that came into being upon decolonisation had its work cut out. From centuries of successive forms of extreme exploitation, oppression and brutalisation, African nations found themselves confronted with the daunting task of, on the one hand, putting in place governance systems that would ensure the survival of the nation-state that was essentially an artificial creation of the colonial regime, cobbled up from a multitude of disparate and often mutually hostile ethnic entities and, on the other, assure a minimum of livelihood for the people by delivering education, health and other social services, securing good prices for agricultural produce, providing jobs through mining and Mabogunje, A.L. Institutional Radical isation, the state and the development process in Africa. Development Policy Centre, Ibadan, Nigeria, 2000. 2 AnyangÃ¢â¬â¢ NyongÃ¢â¬â¢o, Governance, Poverty and Sustainable Development in Africa, in The Quest for Equity in Access to Health and Development, Tropical Institute of Community Health and Development in Kenya. Industrialisation, and generally taking care of the nation, including providing welfare for those who could not fend for themselves. Herculean as these tasks were the first crop of African leaders assumed them with gusto. In fact it was the leaders who enthusiastically promoted these expectations, either because they needed seductive promises to make their peoples rally to the anti-colonial banner, or because they genuinely believed that once the colonialists were out of the way all was possible. Mkandawire3 sheds a harsh light on this Ã¢â¬Å"central preoccupationÃ¢â¬ with Ã¢â¬Å"developmentÃ¢â¬ . Ã¢â¬Å"African leaders have always been aware of the need for some nationalist-cum-developmentalist ideology for both national building and developmentÃ¢â¬ ¦ The quest for an ideology to guide the development process inspired African leaders to propound their own idiosyncratic and often incoherent Ã¢â¬ËideologiesÃ¢â¬â¢ to Ã¢â¬Ërally the massesÃ¢â¬â¢ for national unity and dev elopment. If such ideologies are still absent it is definitely not for lack of trying.Ã¢â¬ Thus, it was made possible for people to expect that the state would do everything for them, in this way fostering the concept of lÃ¢â¬â¢Etatprovidence, the provider State. Some African states did indeed attempt, with varying degrees of success, to deliver on some of their promises, but it did not take long for most of these attempts to prove Sisyphean, rolled back by a number of factors, including, but not limited to, the following: a) Poor governance and managerial practices; b) Over-centralisation of power in the hands of a small group, or of one individual; c) Emergence of authoritarian/dictatorial/military regimes; d) Failure/reluctance to devolve power and responsibilities to local authorities; e) State corruption; f) Ethnic bias, nepotism, exclusion of whole sections of populations; g) Deterioration of terms trade on the world market; h) Unsustainable levels of state intervention in delivering social services; i) A crippling dependency syndrome on the part of populations hea vily reliant on government handouts, and on the part of governments dangerously dependent on donor handouts.4 By the end of the 1980s, it had become clear that the various development strategies different African countries had followed had not led to the desired outcomes. Despite the earlier promise of the 1960s, and the modest but positive growth figures of the 1970s, the 1980s came to be known as the Ã¢â¬Ëlost decadeÃ¢â¬â¢, a grim epitaph epitomizing the shattered dreams of a whole continent, a reality from which African countries, having lost their initial elegance, have not fully emerged to this day. The World Bank blamed this inability to deliver development on Ã¢â¬Å"a strategy (that) was misconceivedÃ¢â¬ in the sense that in their hurry to modernize, African governments were wont to copy rather than adapt Western development models, with the result that they found themselves with Ã¢â¬Å"poorly designed public investment in industry; too little attention to peasant agriculture; too much intervention in areas where the state lacked managerial, technical and entrepreneurial skills; and too little efforts to foster grassroots development.Ã¢â¬ This top down approach, according to the World Bank, Ã¢â¬Å"demotivated ordinary people, whose en ergies needed to be mobilized in the development effort.Ã¢â¬ It has been rather a case of Ã¢â¬Ëdouble jeopardyÃ¢â¬â¢ in the sense that the State that promised to deliver economic development Ã¢â¬â the Ã¢â¬Ëdevelopmental StateÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬â also took away political and individual rights, constricting the political space in which citizens could enjoy full political participation, the argument being that incessant political bickering and rivalry would sap the developmental potential and undermine the nation building project. In the end, the African State, caught up in its Ã¢â¬ËdevelopmentalistÃ¢â¬â¢ quest, delivered neither economic development nor democratic governance6. The State became more Ã¢â¬Ëcommandist,Ã¢â¬â¢ more intolerant of contrary ideas from its citizens, less reluctant to devolve power to local entities, more given to the use of force as a solution to political issues, and gradually descended into the mire of autocratic rule, the more egregious of which were military dictatorships and/or, later, rule by warlords and their militias. Faced with this stark reality, it became imperative to rethink governance with a view to finding alternative ways of confronting the development challenges of our peoples. At this same time, towards the end of AfricaÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Ëlost decadeÃ¢â¬â¢, momentous events were taking place in the world that were destined to usher in a major paradigmatic shift in world political relations. The end of the Ã¢â¬ËCold WarÃ¢â¬â¢ was unfolding even as efforts were being made to see African countries Ã¢â¬ËdemocratiseÃ¢â¬â¢ and the discourse of that process threw to the fore a hitherto little heeded breed of protagonists, variously known as civil society, NGOs or non state actors. In Eastern Europe, some of these organisations played a central role in bringing about the fall of the Communist regimes, such as was evidenced, especially, by the Polish experience with the workers, union-based Solidarnos, as well as other civil society movements in Romania, East Germany, Bulgaria, Czechoslov akia and the Soviet Union itself. Although there is little evidence to suggest that these movements sustained their role in the new, post-Communist governance systems Ã¢â¬âexcept that a trade union leader took over the State in Poland, and a poet in the Czech Republic Ã¢â¬â their importance had been recognized and stood ready to be deployed elsewhere. Africa, just like Eastern Europe, was emerging from a long period of negative development, and, as such, it was thought, what had worked in the former Communist regimes might work in African countries. As we shall see later, this would have a bearing on the way many of these non state actors, whether packaged as Civil Society Organisations (CSOs), Non Governmental Organisations (NGOs) or simply Non State Actors (NSAs), would be viewed in many African countries, which would also, to a large extent, inform their effectiveness on the ground.
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
George Ritzer describes McDonaldization as Ã¢â¬Å"the process by which the principles of the fast-food restaurant are coming to dominate more and more sectors of American society as well as the rest of the worldÃ¢â¬ . McDonaldization is the idea that our society is becoming more efficient and more fast paced. Rational systems can be defined as Ã¢â¬Å"unreasonable, dehumanizing systems that deny the humanity, the human reason, of the people who work within them or are served by themÃ¢â¬ .1 Today there are many types of businesses that are increasingly adapting the same values and principles of the fast-food industry to their needs. Rational systems are dehumanizing our society and seem to be even more irrational than convenient. Ã¢â¬Å"Almost every aspect of todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society has been affected by McDonaldization including the restaurant business, education, work, healthcare, travel, leisure, dieting, politics and the familyÃ¢â¬ . McDonaldization is turning our society into one which is built upon convenience and gaining the most for our money in the fastest way possible. The significant success of McDonalds, and of McDonaldization as a whole, is due to four basic elements- efficiency, calculability, predictability, and control.(Ritzer, p.12) The first dimension of McDonaldization is efficiency. Efficiency means choosing the optimum means to a given end. Efficiency does have its advantages for both consumers, who get what they want quickly and with little effort, and for workers, who can perform their tasks...
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
HerrickÃ¢â¬â¢s Restaurant is a new restaurant company in its formative stages and is being organized in order to take advantage for the lack of significant number of product lines that present restaurants in the United States do not have at present days.Furthermore, with the opportunity to offer cheaper, variety of high quality food services to its target customers, HerrickÃ¢â¬â¢s Restaurant plans to dominate the restaurant industry in the United States. With the present unstable condition of the U.S. economy many consumers become price conscious and started searching for cheaper but high quality goods and services in the market.With this present market trend and behavior of American consumers, HerrickÃ¢â¬â¢s Restaurant expects to become more profitable relative to the present restaurants in the market through its cheap and vast variety of great tasting quality foods. Furthermore, in order to secure the success of HerrickÃ¢â¬â¢s Restaurant in the market, it plans to launch fi ve store branches every year so as to increase its market share faster.With HerrickÃ¢â¬â¢s Restaurant skilled chefs and crew as well as staffs, it plans to provide extra ordinary experience to its customers by giving them the combination of highest quality of food and services. HerrickÃ¢â¬â¢s Restaurant managementÃ¢â¬â¢s value on the satisfaction of their customers would serves as the pillar of their success.The classy interior design of HerrickÃ¢â¬â¢s Restaurant would give relaxing experience to its customers and perfect for family gathering, business meetings, or even a place where peers could meet and make bond with one another.These unique qualities of Herrick Restaurant would give it enough room to easily out-perform its competitors in the market and at the same time make large amount of profit despite of the present unstable condition of the U.S. economy. It is being expected that after the next five years, Herrick Restaurant would start entering the international mark et and operate on many countries to further expand its horizon in the restaurant industry.Herrick RestaurantÃ¢â¬â¢s ObjectiveHire high skilled staff and the best Chefs in the culinary world through high salary payments and more employee benefits relative to other restaurants in the market To have 40 percent market share in the next 5 years operation of the restaurant. Double its revenue by the end of 2009.To out-perform its competitors in the market in terms of sales volume and profits annually. Become the top restaurant in the U.S. market in 2016. Operate internationally by 2013 to further expand the market and market share of the company. To add 5 or more restaurants in the U.S. market every year to support high growth for the company. Mission of HerrickÃ¢â¬â¢s RestaurantHerrickÃ¢â¬â¢s Restaurant has a mission of providing cheaper, vast variety of great-tasting-high-quality dishes plus superb services from its staffs to provide extra ordinary experiences to its target custom ers. All of our efforts and strategies will point towards attaining higher customer satisfaction and improving the skills of our Chefs, crew, and staffs.This premium that our management is giving to our target customers would serve as its main avenue towards being the top restaurant in the U.S. restaurant industry and have impressive growth in terms of profit and/or sales volume.Furthermore, it is not only great service and food quality that we offer to our target customers but also providing relaxing environment and atmosphere that will suit people from different walks of life while inside our store. In the end, this mission of ours will guide us in future decision making processes and would serve as the pillar of many strategies of the company towards the attainment of market success and dominance.Restaurant Industry OverviewRestaurant industry has been one of the most profitable and stable industries in the American market for the past years. This is the main reason why the owner s of HerrickÃ¢â¬â¢s Restaurants decided to establish a restaurant business than any other possible business venture in the market.The restaurant industry in the United States is being expected to have a sales equivalent to 558 billion USD this year and has been behaving positively since 1970Ã¢â¬â¢s and to have a sales growth equal to 4.4 percent in 2008 (Restaurant.org, 2007).Eating establishment is one of the types of restaurants that provide the highest sales projections for 2008 where HerrickÃ¢â¬â¢s Restaurant is classified. This only means that this year is a Ã¢â¬Å"good yearÃ¢â¬ for the officials of HerrickÃ¢â¬â¢s Restaurant to become aggressive on its expansion programs in the market.
Monday, January 6, 2020
Sample details Pages: 4 Words: 1297 Downloads: 3 Date added: 2017/09/15 Category Advertising Essay Did you like this example? Themes and Issues in American History/4 October 13, 2006 1919-1945 President WilsonÃ¢â¬â¢s friend, George L. Record wrote him in early 1919 Ã¢â¬Å"that something would have to be done about economic democracy to meet this menace of Socialism. Ã¢â¬ This era became one of increasing paranoia about the effects of Socialism on society. Even as the Courts and Congress enforced suppression of certain ideas and acts, the class war in a supposedly class-less society was beginning to take shape. Strikes continued to plague the country and even with the jailing and suppression of union leadership, the Socialist support of the unions continued to attract more members and sympathy. The Seattle Strike of 1919 was seen as an attempt at revolution. It was defeated after five days by Federal troops who proceeded to trample on constitutional rights, by arresting and persecuting the Socialist and union leadership. In addition, printing plants were shut down and anti government propaganda destroyed. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Themes and Issues in American History Ã¢â¬â 1919-1945" essay for you Create order As revolutionary forces and sentiments gathered overseas, there was more and more pressure on the government to control the people or as James Madison stated in Federalist #10, the Ã¢â¬Å"violence of factionÃ¢â¬ . The government used various means of subversion in their attempts to break the morale and purpose of the strikers and Socialist. Conditions were put in place that resulted in many of the workers, and members of the party, to be deported back to their home countries as illegal or undesirable aliens. This petrified and demoralized many of the workers and membership, as the majority of the members were first generation immigrants. Racial hatreds were encouraged by promising jobs and positions to other non-union and politically unaffiliated newly arrived immigrants. Blacks were used as strikebreakers as they were denied union memberships and thus had no loyalties. By the mid-twenties, The IWW was destroyed and the Socialist party falling apart. The economy was doing better and more people were able to benefit. The Congress passed immigration quotas in an effort to control the influx of Marxist and the revolutionary passions that were sweeping the world. Quotas were based on color, creed, and politics. Countries that were predominantly Socialist had their quotas decreased. The Ã¢â¬Å"Roaring TwentiesÃ¢â¬ promised prosperity and fun. Unemployment was down and wages were up. Forty percent of the people were consumed with consumerism and the stock market. They turned a blind selfish eye to the plight of the tenant farmer and immigrant families trapped in the tenements of the big cities. Prosperity was concentrated at the top of the economic scale with 42 % of the people making less than $1,000. 0 per year. Every year in the twenties, 25,000 workers were killed and 100,000 permanently disabled. There were a few triumphs of the 1920Ã¢â¬â¢s, such as the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment affirming the rights of the long suffering women to vote, but few politicians spoke out for the poor. In 1923, the Ã¢â¬Å"Mellon PlanÃ¢â¬ was passed that further eroded the peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s faith in unbiased government, by reducing the rates of tax ation for the rich. Communist Party members were continuing to stir up labor unrest whenever and wherever possible. The stock market crash of 1929 was attributed to unhealthy banking and corporate structures, unsound foreign trade, economic speculation and misinformation, and bad distribution of income. This plunged the country into the Great Depression and a period of unpredictability and instability. Thousands of banks and businesses closed as millions of people were unemployed, homeless, and helpless. These people were becoming dangerous as they became more desperate, and the spirit of rebellion was growing. Thousands of the unemployed and disillusioned WWI veterans converged on Washington in protest. They were crushed by Federal troops led by Patton, MacArthur, and Eisenhower. The governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s inaction in the economy, and the swift and brutal repression of the protesters, helped lead to the election of Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1933. His support and the passage of much needed reform legislation became known as the New Deal. It promised stability of markets, relief, and the creation of jobs. Its main goal was to give enough hope to the lower classes to curb their tendency to revolution and the taking of property for survival. Legislative action was also necessary to control the strikes that were crippling the economies ability to repair it self. The passage of the Wagner Act of 1935 was enacted to try and stabilize labor unrest. Congress responded to strikes and organization of unions by enacting more legislation aimed at control. One of the forgotten aspects of the New Deal is that for most blacks and poor tenant farmers the system remained unchanged, as they did not qualify for many of the benefits created for them. Discrimination and repression still flourished in the South. The armed forces were segregated and the Federal government did little to change the status quo. The Communist Party radicals attempted to organize the workers to break the racial barriers. The fear of the Communist threat would soon be replaced by the march of Fascism to the east, and Japanese Imperialism and attacks to the west. The Ã¢â¬Å"peoples warÃ¢â¬ had begun and with it the organization of all people, races and political parties against the evil and totalitarian aggression of the Axis Party. However, as the Allied governments espoused patriotism and purpose, the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s western powers were preparing to redistribute global wealth and fashion public opinion on politics (the Atlantic Charter) based on fear and uncertainty. The League of Nations or the United Nations was created during the war to act as an international buffer to the conflicts of the future. It was however, directed and controlled by the Western Governments through the Security Council memberships and simple majority of vote. This assured that the western democracies maintained the Ã¢â¬Å"bully pulpitÃ¢â¬ for the world. American business flourished during the war and profits hit record numbers as programs such as Ã¢â¬Å"lend-leaseÃ¢â¬ , and foreign aid added to the coffers of capitalism. The loss of liberty was most pronounced during this time as immigrants were rounded up and detained based on race (Executive order 9066), subversive political elements held in check by legislation (1940 Smith Act and 1917 Espionage Act), and wartime freedom of the press controlled by the government through censorship. American workers were further put down by the no strike pledges of the AFL-CIO, and the Negros discrimination in the armed forces put into perspective by such practices as blood segregation and other acts of racism. The American worker continued to strike without the unionÃ¢â¬â¢s approval, and more strikes were organized during the war than at any other time in American history. It became necessary in order to prove to the world and the seducing call of the new imperial power to the east, that America was strong in both military power and influence. On August 6, 1945, the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s first atomic bomb was used in war. As true history shows, it was not necessary to drop the bomb in order to defeat Japan, but it was necessary to show to the world that the United States had post war prominence. It was the first major operation against Russia, in what would become known as the Ã¢â¬Å"Cold WarÃ¢â¬ . It would show to the world the power of democracy and split the world politically between the Imperialist Democracies of the west and the Communist Totalitarian rule of the east. The Truman Doctrine would help formulate the political post war strategy of the United States. By warning of the dangers of Communism in the post war atomic world, the United States would embark on a mission of providing economic and military assistance abroad, and create thousands of postwar jobs in the defense industries at home. The Ã¢â¬Å"Iron CurtainÃ¢â¬ had fallen on the world. The war had rejuvenated American capitalism and stifled rebellion at home. The old lesson, of war solving problems of control, had been taught once again.